A QUICK GUIDE TO DOG BODY LANGUAGE  AND BEHAVIORS

  Dogs use an eloquent range of body language to communicate with both humans and other dogs.
  This is a guide to some of the most common ways in which dogs express themselves physically
  and explains what they are telling you by each particular behavior.

BODY MOVEMENTS
Pawing is an appeasing gesture.
Licking another dog's face is an invitation to play or a sign of deference.
Play bowing (front legs extended, rump up, tail wagging) is an invitation to play and a sign of
happiness.
Draping the head over another dog's shoulders is a social challenge.
Freezing in place means a dog is frightened.

EARS
Relaxed ears mean that a dog is calm.
Erect ears show that a dog is alert and attentive.
Ears that are up and forward mean a dog is challenging or being assertive or-aggressive Ears that
area laid back indicate that a dog is worried or scared.

EYES
Direct eye contact means that a dog is feeling bold and confident.
Casual eye contact means he's contented.
An averted gaze means deference.
Dilated pupils indicate fear.

HACKLES (the hair on the shoulders and hips).
Raised hackles indicate arousal, either because a dog is frightened Or is challenging another dog.
Smooth hackles show a dog is calm.

HUMPING
There's often sexual intent in this behavior, even if the dog doing the humping is neutered, or even
female.  You can let dogs interact this way, as long as the dog being humped isn't trying to escape
(and, of course, providing the humping dog is not an unneutered male and the other dog a female in
season).  If a dog does it to a person, break his focus suddenly by making a loud noise to stop him in
his tracks,

LEANING
Dogs are very tactile and don't always respect personal space.  It's common for them to lean against
people's legs.  Dogs who merely lean, as opposed to a cat-like rubbing back and forth, may be
attempting to expand their personal space by taking over yours.  Conversely, some dogs lean to
express an affectionate kind of possession, or to prevent you from going somewhere else.  If your
dog rubs against your legs, he is probably just trying to scratch a hard-to-reach spot.

MOUNTING
When your dog either mounts another dog or stands above another dog by putting his front paws on
the other dog's back, he is asserting his dominance over the other dog.  Mounting other dogs isn't
just a male characteristic.  High-ranking females do it, too. Owners wonder why male dogs mount
other males or why females mount at all, but mounting is more often related to social status than to
sex.

MOUTH AND LIPS
Panting means that a dog is feeling playful, excited or stressed, or he may simply be hot.
A dog with the mouth and lips closed is uncertain or appeasing.
Licking the lips is a sign that a dog is worried or is trying to appease a person or another dog.  A
relaxed mouth means a dog is calm.
Lips pulled back are a challenging or warning sign, especially when combined with a snarl

NOSE NUDGING
Dogs love to push people with their noses. Most of the time it just means they want affection or
attention.  If you are reading the newspaper, for example, your dog may nudge your hand to try to get
your attention away from the paper and back to him.  Or perhaps the chair that you're in is his
favourite place and he wants you to move out of the way so he can take possession.

PAW LIFTING
If his lifted paw is accompanied by a relaxed, happy expression and a neutral position, your dog just
wants attention.  Maybe he has been taught how to shake hands and knows he can get positive
attention that way.  While paw lifting is most likely an invitation to play, your dog might be telling you
something else.

PLAY BOWING
When your dog is play bowing, his rear end goes up, his front end goes down, his tail wags and his
eyes light up.  He's saying, "I want to play," whether it's to another dog or to a human. He may
perform this friendly, attention-seeking trick when you're serious and he wants to change your tone.
Accept his invitation to play if you're in the mood.

ROLLING OVER
When a dog rolls over on his back with his belly exposed and his legs in the air, he's being
submissive. If done in front of another dog, he's saying, "You're the boss and I don't want to fight."  
When your dog rolls over for you, it could have more than one meaning.  If done in anticipation of a
scolding, it means, "I don't know how to please you and I'm afraid you're angry.  Please accept my
apology."  Or your dog may be trying to avoid something he doesn't want to do.  More often, rolling
over is a sign that your dog is happy, trusts you and has a pleasant, low-key nature.  It just means,
"Please pet my belly."

SMILING
Chesapeake Bay Retrievers are known for curling their upper lips whenever they feel happy.
Alaskan Malamutes and Samoyeds are also well known for their smiling expressions.  Dogs
sometimes exhibit what is known as a "submissive grin," which is a type of appeasement gesture.  
This behaviour is particularly common in Dalmatians.  Most dogs, however, don't smile in the same
way people do.  If anything, they tend to assume a grin-like expression when they're feeling
threatened or aggressive and want people to see their teeth.

TAIL
A relaxed tail means that a dog is calm and at peace.
A tail held straight out, wagging rhythmically and slowly, means that a dog is cautious or on guard.
Tail down indicates worry or uncertainty.
Tail held up and wagging fast indicates excitement.
An erect tail is a sign of alertness.
A tail held between the legs is a sign of fear.

TAIL TUCKED AND EARS BACK
If your dog tucks his tail, lays his ears back, takes a few steps backward or hides behind you, you can
be sure he's feeling uncertain.  It could be a person or an object that he's not sure of, and you'll need
to lessen his fear by introducing him slowly and unthreateningly to whatever he's apprehensive about.

TAIL WAGGING
You're usually right if you assume that tail wagging indicates a friendly dog, but it's not always the
case.  Dogs also wag their tails when they are frightened, agitated or unsure.  A scared dog may wag
his tail low and between his legs as he weighs up his next move and wonders whether he should
fight, flee or go belly up.  An aggressive, angry dog may wag his tail high while he chases or even
attacks.  Look at what else is going on is the dog's best friend just getting off the school bus, or is
another dog eating out of his dish?  Also check how the dog has distributed his weight, before being
certain that the tail wagging is welcoming.  If he's feeling aggressive, his body will be tense and his
weight will be mainly on the front legs.

TONGUE FLICKING
If your dog repeatedly flicks his tongue up to lick his nose, he's uneasy. He may be assessing a new
situation or wondering if he should approach a stranger.  Or he may be concentrating hard, trying to
master a new obedience command. While a tongue-flicking dog may be friendly, don't approach a
strange tongue flicker, the dog is obviously tense.  Tongue flicking sometimes precedes biting.

YAWNING
Yawning in dogs isn't always a sign of tiredness.  It may indicate anticipation or stress. Yawning
causes instantaneous changes in the body, increasing heart rate and blood flow to the brain, filling
the lungs with oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.  In short, a yawn helps a dog energize his body,
gather his wits.
Your dog may yawn repeatedly when he's waiting in the vet's office, as a way of dealing with
nervousness.  In training classes, he may yawn to deal with frustration and give himself a mental
break.  A dog who yawns in anticipation of something enjoyable, such as a walk, is doing so both to
boost his energy and to control his eagerness.